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Towards the end of the fifth-century BC the Greek world became embroiled in a conflict which lasted with little interruption for 27 years. This module examines this conflict – the Peloponnesian War – and the parts played by the principal adversaries, Athens and Sparta. Central to it is a close study of the Greek historian Thucydides’ account of this war. In particular, we examine the principles of historiography that he employed. On account of his methodology, Thucydides would acquire a reputation as the first scientific historian of the western world, a claim the module scrutinizes. We also, briefly, makes use of other perspectives, such as those provided by the comic playwright Aristophanes, who enriches the picture, adding a cultural dimension by examining the impact that the war had on the general population, male and female, citizen and slave. The module closes with an assessment of the legacy of Thucydides and his place in the Greek historiographical tradition.