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This module explores change and continuity in welfare states, particularly since the 1970s. Themes such as crisis, austerity and welfare state reform, European integration, globalisation, demographic trends, environmental challenges and wider social change as they impinge on welfare states. The Irish case is explored in the wider context of change and continuity. The module also covers issues that have come to the fore in recent times such as household indebtedness, housing issues and policy responses.