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Penal policy across diverse jurisdictions provides an opportunity for comparison and the identification of differences and similarities in the development of policy and in the evolution and implementation of penal practices. The purpose of this module is to permit the exploration of penal policy in two distinct national contexts: Canada and Ireland. Both countries have been influenced by their colonial inheritances and their cultural connections to large and influential geographic neighbours. Yet both have evolved separate and distinct approaches to penal policy. Various influences and trends can be identified as having an impact such as risk, penal populism, mass incarceration and the legacy of the ‘rehabilitative ideal.’ Specific examples of penal policy and practices with respect to indigenous/ethnic minorities, women, young persons, domestic violence offenders and sex offenders will be considered. Comparisons will be drawn where appropriate with other countries in Europe, as well as the USA, the UK and also Australia and New Zealand.