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This module provides a discussion and analysis of how the international legal framework seeks to protect and promote the rights of vulnerable people, such as members of ethnic and religious minorities and Indigenous Peoples. It presents the legal framework in a sociological and political context and explores the challenges to the protection of the rights of minorities and Indigenous peoples under international, regional and national laws. It focuses on issues such as self-determination, access to services, discrimination, oppression, and specific threats to vulnerable populations such as armed conflict, climate change etc. It presents a number of case studies throughout the module which highlight how the rights of vulnerable groups can be protected and also focuses on the gaps in the protective system.