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The module examines the challenges presented by twenty first century biotechnology for law and regulation. An examination of the possible socio-economic concerns about the application of biotechnology techniques and the use of their products in various sectors, medical, agricultural and industrial, and the consequential demands on the law will be a central focus of this module. The module focuses on Irish, UK, European and Australian Law, and other jurisdictions are examined where useful. Topics include consideration of the challenges of regulating science generally; a comparative study of national and state regulatory systems for research and development using controversial biotechnology techniques, including genetic modification and cloning; analysis of legal concerns regarding access to genetic resources; as well as an evaluation of approaches to the regulation of end products of biotechnology.