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The module provides an overview of microbial cell biotechnology and mammalian cell biotechnology applications spanning the production of beer and the role of fermentation to the development of novel human cell therapy applications. Topics covered include basic anabolic and catabolic pathways in microbial cells including glycolysis, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, fats and carbohydrates. Two of the lab practicals will focus on the products of fermentation: ethanol and lactic acid. The mammalian cell biotechnology aspect will focus heavily on human cell culture applications including production of recombinant proteins, stem cells and organoids and the use of cell-based assays for drug discovery and toxicity testing. The remaining two labs will focus on aseptic cell culture technique and the development of cytotoxicity assays. Finally, the module will introduce students to cutting edge cell therapies and to the novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies used to treat cancer. Social justice aspects associated with the human cell culture applications and human cell therapies will also be discussed.