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This module examines one of the most compelling questions about the ancient world: why did the Roman Empire fall? It focuses on the period from the accession of the emperor Diocletian (AD 284) to the Gothic sack of Rome (AD 410). Although this period is often seen as one of decline, this module seeks to present it as one of dynamic change. The culture and society of the Roman Empire underwent profound transformations, but there was also a significant shift in the balance of power between the Empire and the peoples, such as Persians and Goths, who lived beyond its frontiers.