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This module explores change and continuity in welfare states, particularly since the 1970s. One part of the module covers the macro themes of crisis and welfare state reform, European integration and globalisation, demographic trends, environmental challenges and wider social change as they impinge on welfare states. the Irish case is explored in the wider context of change and continuity. A second part of the module covers issues that have come to the fore in recent times affecting individuals, e.g., household indebtedness, particularly since the global financial crisis and policy responses.