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Biogeography is a key component of the physical environment through its focus on plant and animal distributions and ecosystems. This module will provide an introduction to what is biodiversity, how it is perceived and how it is measured. We will examine patterns of biodiversity at local, regional and global spatial and temporal scales. Changing patterns in the geography of life are at the heart of this truly interdisciplinary subject. The module explores the distribution of plants and animals from an environmental perspective, where climate and habitats dictate the spread of populations. It goes on to examine ecosystem theory and how interactions between organisms contribute to their distribution patterns. The section on historical biogeography considers the age-old processes of evolution, plate tectonics and quaternary environmental change and their effects on biodiversity. Colonisation and extinction are at the heart of island biogeography and their investigation provides an insight into key processes shaping species distribution patterns. The module concludes with an evaluation of the current extinction crisis, the spread of invasive species, the challenges faced by small populations, and conservation management.