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The course is lecture based with prescribed additional reading and recommendations for self-directed study. Topics covered include: origin and function of organelles. Animal and plant mitochondrial genomes: structure, gene content, mode of evolution. The significance of mitochondrial DNA in human disease. The impact of lateral and horizontal gene transfer events on plant mitochondrial genome evolution. The plant plastid genome: structure, gene content, mode of evolution. The impact of gene transfer events on plastid genome evolution.