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Topics covered include: origin of life, origin of eukaryotes, origin of photosynthesis, origin of animals, the colonization of land, origin of amniotes (including mammals, birds, and reptiles). Species concepts and modes of speciation. Macroevolutionary patterns and key evolutionary transitions: evolutionary trends and emerging phylogenetic relationships in animals and plants. Population genetics: the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; evolutionary forces in natural populations - mutation, migration, natural selection and genetic drift.