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Topics covered include: principles of molecular, cellular and integrative physiology. An introduction to the organization of nervous systems and endocrine systems in vertebrates. Principles of membrane potential, action potential generation and propagation in neurons. Principles of synaptic transmission. Physiology of contraction in striated and smooth muscle. Physiology of circulatory systems, gas-exchange mechanisms, energy metabolism, osmoregulation and excretion. Physiology of sensory systems including the biology of eye design, colour vision, sound and hearing, mechanoreception, olfaction and taste.